Alberto Liberal de los Rios - Linux Driver Development for Embedded Processors, Second Edition [2018, PDF, ENG]

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Linux Driver Development for Embedded Processors, Second Edition Год издания: 2018
Автор: Alberto Liberal de los Rios
Жанр или тематика: Linux programmingИздательство: Independently published
ISBN: 9781729321829
Язык: АнглийскийФормат: PDF
Качество: Изначально компьютерное (eBook)
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 589Описание: From Amazon.com:The flexibility of embedded Linux, the availability of powerful, energy efficient processors designed for embedded computing and the low cost of new processors are encouraging many industrial companies to come up with new developments based on embedded processors. Current engineers have powerful tools in their hands for developing applications previously unimagined, but they need to understand the countless features that Linux offers today. This book will teach you how to develop device drivers for Device Tree embedded Linux systems. You will learn how to write different types of Linux drivers, as well as the appropriate Application Program Interfaces (APIs) and methods to interface with kernel and user spaces.This book is meant to be practical, but also provides an important theoretical base. Nearly thirty drivers are written and ported to three different processors. You can choose between the NXP i.MX7D, Microchip SAMA5D2 and Broadcom BCM2837 processors to develop and test the drivers, whose implementation is described in detail in the practical lab sections of the book. Before you start reading, I encourage you to acquire one of these processor boards whenever you have access to some GPIOs, and at least one SPI and I2C controller. The hardware configurations of the different evaluation boards used to develop the drivers are explained in detail throughout this book; one of the boards used to implement the drivers is the famous Raspberry PI 3 Model B board.You will learn how to develop drivers, from the simplest ones that do not interact with any external hardware, to drivers that manage different kind of devices: accelerometers, DACs, ADCs, RGB LEDs, Multi-Display LED controllers, I/O expanders, buttons, and USB HID devices. You will also develop DMA drivers, drivers that manage interrupts, and drivers that write/read on the internal registers of the processor to control external devices. To ease the development of some of these drivers, you will use different types of frameworks: Miscellaneous framework, LED framework, UIO framework, Input framework and the IIO industrial framework. This second edition has been updated to the v4.9 LTS kernel.Since the end of March 2019, a new chapter and an appendix have been added to the text of the book. These are: Chapter 13, “Linux USB Device Drivers” and Appendix, “Porting Kernel Modules to the Microchip SAMA5D27-SOM1”. These two new chapters can be downloaded from the Github of this book for readers who have acquired the book before that date. In the Chapter 13, you will learn how to create a fully functional USB HID device based on the Microchip PIC32MX microcontroller that will send/receive data to/from a Linux USB Host device based on the Microchip SAMA5D27 processor; several custom Linux USB device drivers will be developed throughout this chapter. The Appendix describes the hardware settings for the ATSAMA5D27-SOM1-EK1 board that are needed to test the practical labs described throughout this book. To run the labs on this board, the SAMA5D27-SOM1 drivers based on the v4.14 LTS kernel and the SAMA5D27-SOM1 device tree settings can be downloaded from the GitHub repository of this book.

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Оглавление

Preface..................................................................................................................13
Chapter 1: Building the System..........................................................................19
Bootloader..............................................................................................................20
Linux Kernel............................................................................................................22
System Call Interface and C Runtime Library.........................................................25
System Shared Libraries........................................................................................26
Root Filesystem......................................................................................................27
Linux Boot Process.................................................................................................28
Building a Linux Embedded System.......................................................................30
Setting up Ethernet Communication.......................................................................31
Building a Linux Embedded System for the NXP i.MX7D Processor.....................32
Introduction.............................................................................................................32
Host Packages.......................................................................................................33
Setting up the Repo Utility......................................................................................33
Yocto Project Setup and Image Building................................................................33
Working Outside of Yocto.......................................................................................36
Building the Linux Kernel........................................................................................38
Installing a TFTP Server.........................................................................................41
Installing a NFS Server...........................................................................................42
Setting the U-Boot Environment Variables.............................................................42
Building a Linux Embedded System for the Microchip
SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................................................................43
Introduction.............................................................................................................43
Host Packages.......................................................................................................44
Yocto Project Setup and Image Building................................................................44
Working Outside of Yocto.......................................................................................46
Building the Linux Kernel........................................................................................47
Installing a TFTP Server.........................................................................................49
Installing a NFS Server...........................................................................................49
Setting the U-Boot Environment Variables.............................................................50
Building a Linux Embedded System for the Broadcom
BCM2837 Processor...............................................................................................50
Raspbian................................................................................................................50
Building the Linux Kernel........................................................................................51
Copying Files to your Raspberry Pi........................................................................54
Working with Eclipse...............................................................................................55
Eclipse Configuration for Working with Kernel Sources.........................................56
Eclipse Configuration for Developing Linux Drivers...............................................67
Chapter 2: The Linux Device and Driver Model.................................................73
Bus Core Drivers....................................................................................................74
Bus Controller Drivers.............................................................................................76
Device Drivers........................................................................................................77
Introduction to the Device Tree...............................................................................78
Chapter 3: The Simplest Drivers.........................................................................83
Licensing.................................................................................................................84
LAB 3.1: "helloworld" Module.................................................................................84
Listing 3-1: helloworld_imx.c...................................................................................85
Listing 3-2: Makefile................................................................................................86
helloworld_imx.ko Demonstration...........................................................................86
LAB 3.2: "helloworld with parameters" Module.......................................................87
Listing 3-3: helloworld_imx_with_parameters.c.......................................................88
helloworld_imx_with_parameters.ko Demonstration...............................................88
LAB 3.3: "helloworld timing" Module.......................................................................88
Listing 3-4: helloworld_imx_with_timing.c...............................................................89
helloworld_imx_with_timing.ko Demonstration.......................................................90
Chapter 4: Character Drivers..............................................................................91
LAB 4.1: "helloworld character" Module.................................................................93
Registration and Unregistration of Character Devices...........................................94
Listing 4-1: helloworld_imx_char_driver.c...............................................................98
Listing 4-2: Makefile..............................................................................................102
Listing 4-3: ioctl_test.c..........................................................................................102
helloworld_imx_char_driver.ko Demonstration.....................................................102
Add the Module to the Kernel Build......................................................................103
Creating Device Files with devtmpfs.....................................................................104
LAB 4.2: "class character" Module.......................................................................105
Listing 4-4: helloworld_imx_class_driver.c............................................................107
helloworld_imx_class_driver.ko Demonstration....................................................109
Miscellaneous Character Driver............................................................................109
Registering a Minor Number.................................................................................110
LAB 4.3: "miscellaneous character" Module.........................................................111
Listing 4-5: misc_imx_driver.c...............................................................................111
misc_imx_driver.ko Demonstration.......................................................................113
Chapter 5: Platform Drivers...............................................................................115
LAB 5.1: "platform device" Module.......................................................................117
Listing 5-1: hellokeys_imx.c..................................................................................120
hellokeys_imx.ko Demonstration..........................................................................122
Documentation to Interact with the Hardware......................................................123
Hardware Naming Convention..............................................................................123
Pin Controller........................................................................................................124
Pin Control Subsystem.........................................................................................127
Device Tree Pin Controller Bindings.....................................................................134
GPIO Controller Driver..........................................................................................138
GPIO Descriptor Consumer Interface...................................................................140
Obtaining and Disposing GPIOs...........................................................................141
Using GPIOs.........................................................................................................141
GPIOs Mapped to IRQs........................................................................................143
GPIOs in Device Tree...........................................................................................143
Exchanging Data between Kernel and User Space.............................................144
MMIO (Memory-Mapped I/O) Device Access.......................................................145
LAB 5.2: "RGB LED platform device" Module......................................................147
LAB 5.2 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor....................................147
LAB 5.2 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor...............................149
LAB 5.2 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor................................151
LAB 5.2 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor...................................................153
LAB 5.2 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................156
LAB 5.2 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor...............................................159
LAB 5.2 Code Description of the "RGB LED platform device" Module.................161
Listing 5-2: ledRGB_sam_platform.c....................................................................166
ledRGB_sam_platform.ko Demonstration.............................................................171
Platform Driver Resources....................................................................................172
Linux LED Class...................................................................................................174
LAB 5.3: "RGB LED class" Module.......................................................................176
LAB 5.3 DT for the i.MX7D, SAMA5D2 and BCM2837 Processors.....................176
LAB 5.3 Code Description of the "RGB LED class" Module.................................180
Listing 5-3: ledRGB_sam_class_platform.c..........................................................184
ledRGB_sam_class_platform.ko Demonstration...................................................188
Platform Device Drivers in the User Space..........................................................188
User Defined I/O: UIO...........................................................................................190
How UIO Works....................................................................................................192
Kernel UIO API.....................................................................................................193
LAB 5.4: "LED UIO platform" Module...................................................................195
LAB 5.4 DT for the i.MX7D, SAMA5D2 and BCM2837 Processors.....................195
LAB 5.4 Code Description of the "LED UIO platform" Module.............................197
Listing 5-4: led_sam_UIO_platform.c....................................................................199
Listing 5-5: UIO_app.c..........................................................................................201
led_sam_UIO_platform.ko with UIO_app Demonstration......................................203
Chapter 6: I2C Client Drivers.............................................................................205
The Linux I2C Subsystem.....................................................................................206
Writing I2C Client Drivers.....................................................................................210
I2C Client Driver Registration...............................................................................210
Declaration of I2C Devices in Device Tree...........................................................212
LAB 6.1: "I2C I/O expander device" Module.........................................................214
LAB 6.1 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor....................................214
LAB 6.1 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor...............................214
LAB 6.1 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor................................216
LAB 6.1 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor...................................................216
LAB 6.1 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................218
LAB 6.1 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor...............................................220
LAB 6.1 Code Description of the "I2C I/O expander device" Module...................221
Listing 6-1: io_imx_expander.c.............................................................................224
io_imx_expander.ko Demonstration......................................................................228
The Sysfs Filesystem............................................................................................229
The Kobject Infrastructure....................................................................................230
LAB 6.2: "I2C multidisplay LED" Module..............................................................233
LAB 6.2 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor....................................235
LAB 6.2 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor...............................235
LAB 6.2 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor................................235
LAB 6.2 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor...................................................235
LAB 6.2 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................237
LAB 6.2 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor...............................................239
Unified Device Properties Interface for ACPI and Device Tree............................240
LAB 6.2 Code Description of the "I2C multidisplay LED" Module........................242
Listing 6-2: ltc3206_imx_led_class.c.....................................................................246
ltc3206_imx_led_class.ko Demonstration.............................................................254
Chapter 7: Handling Interrupts in Device Drivers...........................................257
Linux Kernel IRQ Domain for GPIO Controllers...................................................260
Device Tree Interrupt Handling.............................................................................268
Requesting Interrupts in Linux Device Drivers......................................................272
LAB 7.1: "button interrupt device" Module............................................................274
LAB 7.1 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor....................................274
LAB 7.1 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor...............................274
LAB 7.1 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor................................274
LAB 7.1 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor...................................................274
LAB 7.1 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................276
LAB 7.1 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor...............................................277
LAB 7.1 Code Description of the "button interrupt device" Module......................278
Listing 7-1: int_imx_key.c......................................................................................280
int_imx_key.ko Demonstration..............................................................................282
Deferred Work......................................................................................................283
Softirqs.................................................................................................................284
Tasklets................................................................................................................286
Timers...................................................................................................................286
Threaded Interrupts..............................................................................................290
Workqueues.........................................................................................................292
Locking in the Kernel............................................................................................296
Locks and Uniprocessor Kernels..........................................................................297
Sharing Spinlocks between Interrupt and Process Context.................................297
Locking in User Context.......................................................................................298
Sleeping in the Kernel...........................................................................................298
LAB 7.2: "sleeping device" Module.......................................................................300
LAB 7.2 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor...................................................301
LAB 7.2 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................302
LAB 7.2 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor...............................................303
LAB 7.2 Code Description of the "sleeping device" Module.................................305
Listing 7-2: int_imx_key_wait.c..............................................................................308
int_imx_key_wait.ko Demonstration......................................................................312
Kernel Threads.....................................................................................................312
LAB 7.3: "keyled class" Module............................................................................313
LAB 7.3 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor....................................314
LAB 7.3 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor...............................314
LAB 7.3 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor................................315
LAB 7.3 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor...................................................316
LAB 7.3 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor..............................................319
LAB 7.3 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor...............................................322
LAB 7.3 Code Description of the "keyled class" Module......................................324
Listing 7-3: keyled_imx_class.c.............................................................................331
keyled_imx_class.ko Demonstration.....................................................................343
Chapter 8: Allocating Memory with Linux Drivers..........................................345
Walking ARM MMU Translation Tables................................................................346
Linux Address Types............................................................................................353
User Process Virtual to Physical Memory Mapping..............................................354
Kernel Virtual to Physical Memory Mapping.........................................................355
Kernel Memory Allocators.....................................................................................357
PAGE Allocator.....................................................................................................357
Page Allocator API...............................................................................................358
SLAB Allocator.....................................................................................................358
SLAB Allocator API...............................................................................................361
Kmalloc Allocator..................................................................................................362
LAB 8.1: "linked list memory allocation" Module ........................................................363
Listing 8-1: linkedlist_imx_platform.c ...........................................................................366
linkedlist_imx_platform.ko Demonstration ...................................................................371
Chapter 9: Linux DMA in Device Drivers..........................................................373
Cache Coherency.................................................................................................373
Linux DMA Engine API.........................................................................................375
Types of DMA Mappings......................................................................................378
LAB 9.1: "streaming DMA" Module.......................................................................382
Listing 9-1: sdma_imx_m2m.c..............................................................................390
sdma_imx_m2m.ko Demonstration.......................................................................395
DMA Scather/Gather Mappings............................................................................396
LAB 9.2: "scatter/gather DMA device" Module.....................................................397
Listing 9-2: sdma_imx_sg_m2m.c.........................................................................400
sdma_imx_sg_m2m.ko Demonstration.................................................................407
DMA from User Space..........................................................................................407
LAB 9.3: "DMA from user space" Module.............................................................409
Listing 9-3: sdma_imx_mmap.c............................................................................411
Listing 9-4: sdma.c................................................................................................416
sdma_imx_mmap.ko Demonstration.....................................................................417
Chapter 10: Input Subsystem Framework for Device Drivers........................419
Input Subsystem Drivers.......................................................................................420
LAB 10.1: "input subsystem accelerometer" Module............................................423
Device Tree..........................................................................................................425
Input Framework as an I2C Interaction................................................................426
Input Framework as an Input Device....................................................................428
Listing 10-1: i2c_imx_accel.c................................................................................431
i2c_imx_accel.ko Demonstration..........................................................................433
Using SPI with Linux.............................................................................................435
The Linux SPI Subsystem....................................................................................437
Writing SPI Client Drivers.....................................................................................440
SPI Client Driver Registration...............................................................................440
Declaration of SPI Devices in Device Tree...........................................................442
LAB 10.2: "SPI accel input device" Module..........................................................446
LAB 10.2 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor..................................446
LAB 10.2 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor.............................447
LAB 10.2 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor..............................447
LAB 10.2 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor.................................................447
LAB 10.2 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor............................................449
LAB 10.2 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor.............................................451
LAB 10.2 Code Description of the "SPI accel input device" Module....................451
Listing 10-2: adxl345_imx.c..................................................................................462
adxl345_imx.ko Demonstration.............................................................................476
Chapter 11: Industrial I/O Subsystem for Device Drivers...............................479
IIO Device Sysfs Interface....................................................................................481
IIO Device Channels.............................................................................................481
The iio_info Structure............................................................................................484
Buffers..................................................................................................................485
IIO Buffer Sysfs Interface.....................................................................................485
IIO Buffer Setup....................................................................................................485
Triggers................................................................................................................487
Triggered Buffers..................................................................................................487
Industrial I/O Events.............................................................................................489
Delivering IIO Events to User Space....................................................................492
IIO Utils.................................................................................................................494
LAB 11.1: "IIO subsystem DAC" Module..............................................................494
Device Tree..........................................................................................................495
Industrial Framework as an I2C Interaction..........................................................497
Industrial Framework as an IIO Device................................................................498
Listing 11-1: ltc2607_imx_dual_device.c...............................................................504
LAB 11.2: "IIO subsystem DAC" Module with "SPIDEV dual ADC user"
Application............................................................................................................508
LAB 11.2 Hardware Description for the i.MX7D Processor..................................510
LAB 11.2 Hardware Description for the SAMA5D2 Processor.............................510
LAB 11.2 Hardware Description for the BCM2837 Processor..............................510
LAB 11.2 Device Tree for the i.MX7D Processor.................................................511
LAB 11.2 Device Tree for the SAMA5D2 Processor............................................511
LAB 11.2 Device Tree for the BCM2837 Processor.............................................512
Listing 11-2: LTC2422_spidev.c...........................................................................512
ltc2607_imx_dual_device.ko with LTC2422_spidev Demonstration.....................516
LAB 11.3: "IIO subsystem ADC" Module..............................................................518
Device Tree..........................................................................................................518
Industrial Framework as a SPI Interaction............................................................520
Industrial Framework as an IIO Device................................................................521
Listing 11-3: ltc2422_imx_dual.c...........................................................................524
LTC2422_app User Space Application.................................................................526
Listing 11-4: ltc2422_app.c...................................................................................526
ltc2422_imx_dual.ko with ltc2422_app Demonstration.........................................529
LAB 11.4: "IIO subsystem ADC with hardware triggering" Module.......................529
LAB 11.4 DT for the i.MX7D, SAMA5D2 and BCM2837 Processors...................530
Sleep and Wake up in the Driver..........................................................................534
Interrupt Management..........................................................................................535
Listing 11-5: ltc2422_imx_trigger.c.......................................................................536
ltc2422_imx_trigger.ko with LTC2422_app Demonstration..................................540
Chapter 12: Using the Regmap API in Linux Device Drivers.........................541
Implementing Regmap..........................................................................................543
LAB 12.1: "SPI regmap IIO device" Module.........................................................546
Listing 12-1: adxl345_imx_iio.c.............................................................................557
adxl345_imx_iio.ko Demonstration.......................................................................569
References..........................................................................................................573
Index....................................................................................................................575

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